“Medical remedies have improved since those times — no more smashed snails, salt-cured weasel flesh or ashes of cremated dogs’ heads — but surgical instruments have changed surprisingly little. Scalpels, needles, tweezers, probes, hooks, chisels and drills are as much part of today’s standard medical tool kit as they were during Rome’s imperial era.” NYT (Gift Article): Scalpel, Forceps, Bone Drill: Modern Medicine in Ancient Rome. “‘There were no licensing boards and no formal requirements for entrance to the profession,’ … ‘Anyone could call himself a doctor.’ If his methods were successful, he attracted more patients; if not, he found another career.'” (From the sounds of how medicine was done back then, being a lumberjack might make a decent alternate career choice.)