“James P. Allison, of MD Anderson Cancer Center in Texas, and Tasuku Honjo, of Kyoto University in Japan, independently discovered that certain proteins can act as brakes on the immune system. When those brakes are lifted, immune cells will attack cancer as if it were a foreign invader. The approach is technically known as ‘immune checkpoint inhibition.'” Buzzfeed: Two Scientists Have Won The Nobel Prize In Medicine For Cancer Therapy.